Mobile Business Glossary

Compiled by Gisela Decker-Schultheiss, SAP AG – Version 1.0

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 0

The following glossary offers essential insights into the world of Mobile Business. The selection of terms and their definitions is based on research across a variety of current sources. If you miss a term please send an e-mail to Gisela Decker-Schultheiss.



Always On

A feature used in GPRS. The device stays permanently online and can therefore receive incoming e-mail immediately. Data is transferred by means of packet switched mode.


On the World Wide Web, an applet (or more commonly a Java Applet, the object-oriented programming language for the Web being Java) is a small program that can be sent with a Web page to a user. Applets make it possible for a Web user to interact with the page. A Java Applet can perform all kinds of simple tasks such as interaction. It works independently of operating systems.




Asynchronous Transfer Mode. ATM is a dedicated-connection switching technology that organizes digital data into 53-byte cell units and transmits them over a physical medium using digital signal technology. ATM transfers data, speech and video simultaneously.


Third-party company that provides functionality to deliver Web-based information and applications to all classes of wireless devices, including Internet-enabled mobile phones, such as WAP phones, and Palm Computing and Windows-CE-based handheld devices. AvantGo is used with the initial CRM Mobile Service for handhelds scenario . For more infos please click



Bandwidth (the width of a band of electromagnetic frequencies) is used as a measurement for the amount of data that can be transmitted per unit of time. Any digital or analog signal has a bandwidth. For analog signals, it is given as the range of occupied frequencies and for digital signals, as data speed in bits per second (bps). Bandwidth is directly proportional to the amount of data transmitted or received per unit of time. To download a photograph in one second, a higher bandwidth is needed than to download a page of text in the same time.


Standard R/3 interface that enables you to integrate third-party software into the R/3 System. Business Application Programming Interfaces (BAPIs) are defined in the Business Object Repository (BOR) as methods applied to SAP business objects, in order to perform specific business tasks. BAPIs are implemented and stored in the R/3 system as RFC-enabled function modules in the Function Builder of the ABAP Workbench.


Bluetooth is a standardized interface that enables wireless communication between all kinds of devices such as printers, PCs, cell phones or PDAs. It is a low-power radio technology that was developed to replace cables and infrared links for distances of up to ten meters. Bluetooth is independent of operating systems or company standards. Different devices can be linked together to communicate and exchange data via a wireless transceiver that fits onto a single chip. Also, mobile payment with Bluetooth cell phones based on the Bluetooth Special Interest Group will be possible.

The first generation of Bluetooth permits exchange of data up to a rate of 1 Mbps per second, even in areas with much electromagnetic disturbance. It transmits and receives via a short-range link using a globally available frequency band (2.4 GHz ISM band).


Base Station Controler. A BSC controls several BTSs assigning radio channels, controlling frequency changes or the handover & changeover between the controlled radio cells.


Base Station Subsystem. The term BSS denotes the unit of the Base Station Controler (BSC) and the Base Transceiver Station (BTS). BSS and BTS communicate using a standard interface allowing the use of components from different providers.


Base Transceiver Station. The BTS is a single base station that contains the transmitter and the receiver that make up a radio cell. In addition, the BTS processes direct communication with the cell phone.



A cache is a memory system component in which copies of frequently used data are stored for quick access. A cache is used to reduce access times. Web pages are stored in a browser's cache directory. Caching can also be implemented for Internet content by distributing it to multiple servers that are periodically refreshed. In a mobile context, caching of web pages enable offline browsing capabilities.


Customized Applications for Mobile Networks Enhanced Logic is a feature of GSM. CAMEL integrates IN functionality into a GSM system. When a user is roaming between networks, the home network may track and control the subsidiary's calls.


Code Division Multiple Access is one of three digital wireless telephony transmission technologies. It is the future standard of 3G. CDMA allows multiple frequencies to be used simultaneously. CDMA digitizes the data and then spreads it out over the entire bandwidth where it is less subject to interference (Spread Spectrum). The coding guarantees that only the receiver's personal signals are decoded.

The CDMA idea was originally developed for military use over 30 years ago. Some US based carriers use CDMA.


A channel is a preselected Web site that can automatically send Contact usd information for immediate display or viewing on request.

Channels provide special information to mobile devices. Content such as news on economics, politics, and technology is regularly Contact usd and pushed onto the devices whenever a connection is available.


Compact HTML is a lighter version of HTML for i-mode. It only contains one screen. cHTML is not XML-based. Frames or tables are excluded.

Code Warrior

A popular development environment for various platforms.


Software capable of updating data from a hand-held device to a desktop PC or a notebook. The conduit also saves hand-held data.


A cookie is an information for future use given to a Web browser by a Web server and is stored by the server on the client side of a client/server communication. The information is then sent back to the server each time the browser requests a page from the server. The main purpose of cookies is to identify users and possibly prepare customized Web pages for them.


A cradle denotes a docking station or a wire that makes the contact between a PDA and a PC using a serial or USB interface, e.g. when synchronizing data.


Circuit Switched Data. Line Switched Data transfer in GSM standard. The opposite of Packet Switched Data.


DCS 1800

Digital Communications System: another name for GSM working on a radio frequency of 1800 MHz. Also known as GSM1800 or PCN, this digital network operates in Europe and Asia Pacific.

Desktop Computing

Desktop computing is the opposite of Mobile Computing. The term is used to describe location-based workplaces on PCs or laptop computers.


In a mobile context, device includes PDAs, Palms, Pocket PCs, cell phones or any hardware that provides location-independent access to information, applications or services.


In satellite telecommunication, a downlink is the link from a satellite down to one or more ground stations or receivers or, in a mobile context, the connection from the base station (BSS) of a GSM net to a cell phone for downloading data onto the device.

Downlink Frequency

Downlink frequency is the frequency range (or band) for the connection from a mobile base station to a receiver (terminal).

Dual Band

Dual band mobile phones can work on networks that operate on different frequency bands. This is useful if you move between areas covered by different networks. In Europe GSM networks operate on two frequency bands, 900 or 1800 MHz. See also Tri-Band.


Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing. DWDM is a technology that provides almost unlimited bandwidth on optical fibers.



Electronic commerce is a generic term that covers all kinds of commercial transactions on the Internet. Most commonly, it denotes the buying and selling of goods and services on the Internet, especially the World Wide Web. Sometimes even payment over the Internet is possible. With the use of at least one wireless device, E-commerce turns into M-commerce.


Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution. An enhanced modulation technique designed to increase network capacity and data rates in GSM networks. EDGE should provide a higher bandwidth than GPRS and data rates up to 384 Kbps. EDGE will allow operators without a 3G license to compete with 3G networks offering similar data services. EDGE is not expected before 2001 at the earliest and is seen as a solution to bandwidth limitations, before UMTS becomes widely available.


Electronic Data Interchange. EDI is a standard format for exchanging business data and is a type of e-commerce. An EDI transaction set (= message) contains facts or information such as price or product numbers in the same way that normal business documents do. The fact is represented in a data element. A string of data elements forms a data segment. The parties exchanging EDI messages are referred to as trading partners.


Enhanced Full Rate is a technique used in modern cellular phone networks to improve the voice quality. EFR talks use a GSM-channel as "normal" Full-Rate talks do. However, they do not need any additional resources. The enhanced quality results from modern voice processing transactions.

Embedded Computing

The subject of "embedded computing" concerns the business scenario of consumer appliances such as intelligent TV sets, beverage machines or refrigerators. These devices have embedded microprocessors that allow access to intelligent networks and the retrieval of both relevant information and services. Typical embedded computing applications include machine automation, machine vision, mass transportation, radar and high-speed data acquisition.


Simulates the behavior of a real device with the advantage that the infrastructure for such devices may be partially or entirely absent. For instance, SAP uses emulators by Nokia or for WAP application development. WAP emulators are used to simulate the behavior of a real WAP phone on a PC or Laptop.


EPOC is a multi-tasking operating system that supports a pen-based graphical user interface (GUI) and is designed for small, portable computer-phones and hand-helds with wireless access to phone and other information services. The code is very compact so that it can fit onto a small ROM chip and it can be scaled from relatively large configurations, for a fully functional handheld computer, to small configurations for embedded applications. The name derived from the company's belief that the world is entering "a New Epoch of Personal Convenience". Other operating systems include Windows CE, PalmOS. EPOC is used on Psion's devices, which are popular in Europe.


European Telecommunications Standards Institute. ETSI is a non-profit organization whose mission is to set the standard for telecommunications throughout Europe and beyond. Its work program is based on, and co-ordinated with, the activities of international standardization bodies.


Flow Logic

Code that defines the dialog flow of an HTML template that is part of a screen-independent application started from a Web browser and driven by the Internet Transaction Server. Flow logic uses a subset of XML elements to define logical transitions between states, depending on what the user decides to do when running an application. This determines which HTML template is displayed next. Flow logic is the recommended way of writing MiniApps for the Workplace.

Form Factor

Form factor refers to the size of the device's display. For example, palm-size, handheld PC (half VGA, and full VGA).



Gateway GPRS Support Node. GGSN is an integral part of GPRS systems.


General Packet Radio Service is a radio technology for GSM networks, based on GSM communication. It provides packet-oriented data transfer using parallel GSM channels in parallel. The device is always connected whenever suitable and within network coverage. GPRS will enhance bandwidth by about 50 KB/s up to 170 kb/s that allows the transfer of higher data rates, e.g. video or music clips. The customer is not charged for connection times, but rather for the amount of data sent. It will also complement bluetooth. GPRS is available in the early 2001. It is an evolutionary step towards EDGE and UMTS.


Global Positioning System. GPS is a global satellite system for pinpointing the precise location of any compatible receiver unit. By knowing its distance from three or more satellites, GPS provides 24-hour three-dimensional position, velocity and altitude information to users with ground bases. A user may pinpoint his position to within a range of 10 - 100 meters in a matter of seconds. GPS is owned by the U.S. Department of Defense but is available for general use around the world. Applications include handheld telematics, fleet tracking and vehicle management systems.


Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). Former Groupe Speciale Mobile. GSM is the 2nd generation of digital mobile telephone system that is the European standard for wireless communication. GSM uses a variation of TDMA. It supports voice, data, text messaging and cross-border roaming. GSM digitizes and compresses data, then sends it down a channel with two other streams of user data, each in its own time slot. It operates at either the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz frequency band in Europe, Asia and Australia and on 1900 MHz in America with transfer rates of 9,6 Kbit/s.



Hand-held denotes a small computer that can be stored in a pocket and which can be used while holding it. Hand-held is used as a synonym for PDA or Palm. The input can be made using a small keyboard or using touch screen or a stylus.


Handheld Device Markup Language: A device- and network-independent language developed by for Web programming on a hand-held device with limited memory and display, such as celluar phone or an organizer.


Home Location Register is the home database of a GSM net. It contains all administrative information about the subscribers of a specific provider. This includes all kind of information such as services, city zones and phone numbers with a special tariff. Additionally, the HLR contains all information related to mobility management. An incoming call may be tracked using the HLR and can be forwarded to the VLR.


Hotsync is a registered trade mark for software that provides a link between a Palm and a laptop or a desktop computer for data transfer. Data can be transferred or synchronization can be done using a hotsync cable or using a wireless connection such as an infrared link. In a network, direct linking allows each portable computer to take advantage of the resources of the whole system, and also allows communication between or among end users.


Hand-held Personal Computer or HPC or H/PC.


High Speed Circuit Switched Data is an alternative to GPRS. Several GSM timeslots are added together to reach higher transfer rates up to 38,4 Kbps. That does only work, however, if the network has sufficient free capacity. A permanent connection is established for which the user is charged. HSCSD is more suited to video-conferencing and multimedia than for standard applications such as e-mail. It is mainly deployed in Scandinavia, the UK and Hong Kong. In Germany, only D2 and E-Plus offer HSCSD.


HyperText Markup: a standard set of command (tags) used to structure documents and format text so that it can be used on the Web.


HyperText Transfer Protocol: a set of instructions for exchanging data on the Web and therefore needed for the communication between a server and a Web client.


HTTPS: Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol. HTTPS, a Web protocol developed by Netscape, enables Web browsers to encrypt and decrypt user page requests as well as the pages that are returned by the Web server. HTTPS is the use of Secure Socket Layer (SSL) as a sublayer under its regular HTTP application layer.



Short for Internet-Mode, it is the Japanese rival to WAP. It is not a technology but a brand-name provided by Tokyo-based NTT DoCoMo, a purely Japanese product using Japan's standard called PDC. i-Mode uses cHTML and enables wireless devices talk directly to Web servers. It is always on and does not require a dial-in connection. It enables mobile users to access a wide range of Internet services with a mobile phone. Services include banking, airline seat reservations, weather programs and a growing line of PIM-functions. Even full color terminals are now available.


International Mobile Telecommunications Standard 2000. This is a concept for providing a global system for mobile telecommunication that enables worldwide wireless access. To reach the goal, different national as well as regional standards are linked together.

International Mobile Telecommunications Standard 2000. This is a concept for providing a global system for mobile telecommunication that enables worldwide wireless access. To reach this goal, different national as well as regional standards such as i-Mode or UMTS are linked together. IMT-2000 is often used synonymously with UMTS or 3G.


Intelligent Network. A telecommunication network based on an architecture that provides flexibility for facilitating the introduction of new functions and services, including those under customer control.


Internet Protocol. The IP defines the structure and the address of data packets which are sent from one computer to another on the Internet. The data is divided into little packets, each of which contains the sender's and the receiver's Internet address. IP is a connectionless protocol, which means that there is no continuing connection between the end points of communication.


Infrared Data Association. The IrDA is an industry-sponsored organization set up in 1993 to create international standards for the hardware and software used in infrared communication links. A suite of protocols for infrared (IR) exchange of data between two devices, up to 1 or 2 meters apart (20 to 30 cm for low-power devices). This association produces a standard for infrared data transmissions of up to 4 Mbps. The cost of this technology is extremely low and it is embedded in a number of hand-held devices, such as PDAs and cellular phones. Infrared communication involves a transceiver in both devices that communicate. The remote control of a TV uses the same technology.


Internet Transaction Server: Important part of SAP's Web infrastructure - Interface between the R/3 system and the Internet.



Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition: A cut-down version of Java defined by Sun Microsystems for use in devices such as mobile phones. J2ME is part of a set of related Java technologies which include definitions of profiles and configurations. Configurations are definitions of a specific subset of Java Virtual Machine (JVM) features and class libraries available on a horizontal class of devices (e. g. a mobile phone or PDA). Profiles are definitions of minimal sets of APIs available on a specific configuration.


Java is a programming language especially for the Internet. Java uses an object-oriented programming model and is used to create applets.



Local Area Network. A digital high-speed network built up of a group of computers that share a common communications line and the resources of a single server. Generally, LAN only covers a small geographic area e.g. within a floor or a building. See also W-LAN.


Low Earth Orbit are satellites circulating the earth at some hundreds or thousands of kilometers.



Mid-earth orbit.


Mobile Execution Environment. MExE is based on Java. This technology features WAP- enhancing security, flexibility and m-commerce of WAP applications.


A microbrowser differs from a "standard" browser in its storage size and scaled-down functionality. The microbrowser technology delivers Web functionality to hand-held devices integrated with a PDA or telephone. It can seamlessly merge communications, PDA and Web functionality using existing and new-term networks. Most devices with microbrowser do not fully support HTML.

Mobile Business

Mobile Business is any kind of interaction with or within an enterprise system that involves at least one mobile device. Mobile business means supporting highly-mobile, geographically-dispersed workforces needing immediate, easy and fast access to business information wherever they may be and anytime.

Mobile Business is any kind of interaction with or within an enterprise system that involves at least one mobile device.

Mobile Commerce, M-Commerce

Mobile commerce is any transaction with a monetary value that is conducted via a mobile telecommunications network. M-commerce is extending E-commerce to a variety of mobile devices.

Mobile Computing

Mobile computing refers to the availability of computing power anytime and anywhere in a variety of mobile devices (PDA, WAP phones).

Mobile Portal

A Web site with a wide range of content, services, applications and links designed for mobile devices. It acts as a value-added interface by selecting the content sources and assembling them in a simple navigation structure for presentation to the end user's mobile device, e.g. the SAP mobile business portal Mobile Workplace.

Mobile Workplace

Mobile Workplace takes the reach of mySAP Workplace enterprise portal to any kind of Internet-enabled mobile device. Providing all users with easy-to-use access to all the information, applications and services they need while on the go. It is the entry point through which users are able to access the e-business solutions from a mobile device. Through this state-of-the-art technology SAP enables its customers to extend their business processes beyond traditional office walls.


Mobile (Services) Switching Center. Integral part of GSM networks. MSC not only handles all the tasks of a conventional phone network (such as establishing the connection) but also provides all functions needed for mobile communication such as authentication, location Contact us or switching of subscribers who are travelling abroad.

mySAP Mobile Business

mySAP Mobile Business provides the core capabilities that support any kind of interaction between and mobile devices. This support consists of business content and the Mobile Portal to successfully interact according to the individual user roles and interest.

SAP platform for e-business, for collaborative processes inside and outside the company.



Network Subsystem. Integral part of GPRS systems.



Offline technology - in distinction to online - is used for scenarios with much more local business logic. Online working is only possible during the data synchronization and the changed data then will be stored on the device local.


Online means continuously online mobile web access. This kind of access makes sense for scenarios handling time sensitive data, needing only less data input or output without using databases

Online on Demand

Online on Demand is a cached web access: offline data cache and online access whenever needed.



The PalmOS is the operating system utilized by the Palm computing devices. Palm OS was designed to fit into a palm-sized device of a specific size and with a specific display size. Palm OS comes with communication interfaces to infrared devices, TCP/IP (for Web connection through wireless or wireline devices). Other OSs include Windows CE and EPOC.


Personal communications services. PCS is a mobile network standard in the US, also known as American GSM. A low-power, high-frequency cellular technology emphasizing personalized services and extended mobility. PCS operates in the1850-1990 MHz bands.


Personal Digital Assistant. A wireless hand-held computer, small enough to fit in one hand. A PDA serves as an organizer, electronic book or note taker. It typically uses a stylus or pen-shaped device for data entry and navigation. Some can have a WAP browser installed. These devices require an additional phone to be used as a modem, using cable or IrDA. Many people use the name of one of the popular PDA products as a generic term. These include Hewlett-Packard's Palmtop and 3Com's PalmPilot.


Personal Digital Cellular. PDC is a japanese standard for digital mobile telephony. It uses both full and half-rate speech coded (5.6 kbps) and allows high-speed transmission at 9.6 kbps to ensure efficient spectrum utilization. PDC has currently over 40 Million users and is therefore the most important standard after GSM.

Pervasive Computing

It is the generic term for mobile and embedded computing.


Personal Information Manager: a program which supports the daily planning, workgroup and task management and often have a toolset with calendar, planner and to-do list. It also can manage send capabilities like phone, email or fax.


Personal Network Card. A PNC is a Compact Flash-Card that is compatible with bluetooth for PocketPCs.

Pocket PC

A Pocket PC can be considered a PDA, but has more computing power and capabilities than a conventional organizer. Pocket PCs run on the Windows CE 3.0 operating system.

Pocket Internet Explorer

The Pocket Internet Explorer is the Web Browser for Pocket PCs. It supports the standards that Web developers are normally using for creating applications including HTML, XML ( Extensible Markup Language) and XSL (Extensible Stylesheet Language). You also can do both online and offline viewing and there are no limitations to "Web Clippings". Please find out more about Pocket Internet Explorer Features.



Quality of Service. QOS is a parameter of UMTS for a certain constant quality of data transfer such as a minimum bandwidth, constant bit rate etc. With UMTS becoming a standard in 2003, the billing is planned to be made according to QOS.



Remote Access Server. RAS enables access to a computer or a network from a remote distance using a dial-up connection over regular telephone lines or mobile networks.

Real-time integration

The ability to make data entered at one workplace instantly available for all other workplaces.


Roaming is the ability to move within different networks. It enables the use of mobile phones while outside the subscriber's home base networks. It requires the same underlying standards such as GSM or similar.


Screen Scraping

A method of conversion software to analyze HTML output for standard web browsers, and to map it to a format as required by mobile devices (e.g. WML).


Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol. sHTTP, a Web protocol developed by Netscape, enables Web browsers to encrypt and decrypt user page requests as well as the pages that are returned by the Web server. sHTTP uses the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) as a sub-layer under its regular HTTP application layer.


Subscriber Identity Module. SIM is an exchangeable chip card, which contains the subscriber's identity key such as the cell phone number and other subscriber-related information. It is the key to GSM security.

SIM Toolkit

GSM functionality that enables data upload by sending codes embedded in SMS on a mobile phone. SMS is a key mechanism for personalizing the SIM in each user's GSM phone. With an SIM Toolkit, a cell phone's software can be upgraded remotely. It is used for applications requiring a high degree of security, such as mobile banking.

Smart Card

Smart cards are cards with an integrated microprocessor. A smart card is inserted into GSM cell phones and contains information about the user.

Smart Phones

Smart phones are wireless telephones capable of both voice and data communication. Their special, computer-enabled features enable quick and easy access to email, fax, and intranet.


Short Message Service. A service available on GSM networks for sending messages of up to 160 characters to cell phones. GSM and SMS are primarily available in Europe.


Secure sockets layer. Protocol to guarantyee a secure message transmission (information about credit cards e.gfor example.) on the Internet. SSL was developed by Netscape and isand is included as part of both the Microsoft and Netscape browsers and most Web server products.


Term to denote a small pen with a rounded tip. The stylus allows data entry on PDAs through the display.


SyncML is an XML-based protocol for synchronization of data and information between different devices. It i's an open standard and still under development. The universal synchronization of data between devices is one of the most important building blocks in the development of 3G wireless. SyncML-compliant products may be released by early 2001.



Time Division Multiplexing. TDM is a scheme in which numerous signals are combined for transmission on a single communications line or channel. A device scans individual channels in rotation, takes bits from each channel, transmits the bits in a string (according to a predetermined sequence), and repeats the process.


Time Division Multiple Access. A common multiple access technology employed in digital cellular systems. It divides conventional radio channels into time slots to obtain higher bandwidth. TDMA is the main standard currently in the United States.


Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol: this protocol is the foundation of the Internet, an agreed upon set of rules directing computers on how to exchange information with each other. Other Internet protocols, such as FTP (File Transfer Protocol), Gopher and HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) sit on top of TCP/IP.


A transceiver is a combination transmitter/receiver in a single package.


Tri-Band or Triple Band mobile phones support three different frequency bands and can therefore work globally. In Europe GSM networks operate on two frequency bands: on 900 or 1800 MHz. In the United States, GSM operates on 1900 MHz. See also Dual Band.



User Agent. In WAP, UA is software that interprets WML, WML script and other forms of code.


Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter. UART is a microchip that controls a computer's serial interface to its attached devices.

Ubiquitous Computing

Access to all relevant computing resources from anywhere at any time.


This User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is defined to make available a datagram mode of packet-switched computer communication in the environment of an interconnected set of computer networks. This protocol assumes that the Internet Protocol (IP) is used as the underlying protocol. This protocol provides a procedure for application programs to send messages to other programs with a minimum of protocol mechanism. The protocol is transaction oriented, and delivery and duplicate protection are not guaranteed. Applications requiring ordered reliable delivery of streams of data should use the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).


Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. Acronym for the third generation mobile telephone standard in Europe. UMTS is often used synonymously with 3G or IMT-2000. It is based on the GSM communication standard. UMTS offers broadband, packet-based transmission of text, digitized voice, video, and multimedia at data rates up to 11 megabits per second (Mbps), to mobile computer and cell phone users no matter where they are located in the world. It should be available in most countries by 2004.


A 16-bit character encoding scheme allowing characters from Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai, Urdu, Hindi, and all other major world languages, living and dead, to be encoded in a single character set. The Unicode specification also includes standard compression schemes and a wide range of typesetting information required for worldwide local support.


An uplink is the connection from a mobile device to the base station of a GSM network.


Universal Terrestrial Radio Access. This is a generic term to denote the different radio technologies used in UMTS systems to set up communication between a mobile subscriber and the base station.


UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network. Radio network for UMTS.



ABACO's software development environment for wireless applications. Supports a thin client; the application resides on central Wireless NT server.


Visitor Location Register. VLR is a database in mobile networks that contains information about subscribers to a GSM network.


Voice over Internet Protocol takes standard voice signals and encodes them using IP. The voice is divided into packets and each packet is sent separately. VoIP reduces the total bandwidth required, as nothing needs to be sent when the caller is not speaking.



WAP Application Environment. Containing the components that developers will use to develop applications for WAP devices, WAE essentially consists of the relevant browser, an interpreter for WML as presentation language and WML script for scripting.


Wireless Application Protocol. WAP is a specification for a set of communication protocols to standardize the way that wireless devices, such as cellular telephones and radio transceivers, can be used for Internet access, including e-mail, the World Wide Web and newsgroups. A WAP-enabled device means that these devices contain a microbrowser that has a wireless connection to the Internet using a gateway server, the WAP server or WAP proxy. It uses a special language, not HTML but rather WML, to cope with issues such as low bandwidth or small screen sizes.

WAP Gateway

The WAP Gateway is the interface between the Internet and mobile networks. Requests come from the browser and arrive at the gateway. The gateway collects the requested data using the Internet from a Web server, compiling the content and then sends the answer back to the cell phone.


Wireless Application Service Provider. Wireless ASP provides the same services as conventional ASP. A WASP enables Web-based access to applications and services that would otherwise have to be stored locally. The main difference between ASP and WASP is that it enables customers to access the service from a variety of wireless devices, such as the smart phone and PDAs.


Wireless Bitmap Picture: WBMP are 2 bit images supported by WAP. For instance, the Nokia Toolkit can convert existing Web images such .gifs or .jpgs to WBMP, from there you just add it in to your WML script.


Wideband Code Division Muliple Access. A future technology for high-speed data transfer, one of three major standards of 3G. It is the technical fundament of IMT-2000.


Wireless Datagram Protocol allows WAP to be bearer-independent by adapting the transport layer of the underlying bearer service and presenting a consistent data format to the higher layer of the WAP protocol stack.

Web Clipping

The wireless browser technology used by Palm devices.


Wireless Identification Module. WIM is a security standard of WAP 1.2 for secure home banking using WAP phones. It contains certificates for server and client.

Windows CE

Windows CE, based on Microsoft Windows, is a multitasking, multithreaded operating system and is designed to be included or embedded in mobile and other space-constrained devices. Other Operating Systems are Palm OS or EPOC.


Wireless Local Area Network. W-LAN is a flexible data communication system implemented as an extension to, or as an alternative for, a wired LAN within a building or campus. WLANs transmit and receive data, using radio-frequency (R/F) transmission. A mobile user can connect to a LAN with devices equipped with R/F-transmitters.


Wireless Markup Language. WML is an XML-based language that enables the display of data on mobile devices. WML provides navigational support, data input, hyperlinks, text and image presentation. A browsing language similar but incompatible to HTML. WML is an important part of the WAP standard.


WMLScript is a scripting language based on WAP's WML programming language, similar to JavaScript but less powerful.


In the WAP framework, this layer links the WAE to two session services: a connection-orented service operating above the WTP and the connectionless service operation above the WDP.


Wireless Telephony Application Interface: This specifies how WAP applications can access mobile-phone functionality.


Wireless Transport Layer Security. Equivalent to SSL (Secure Socket Layer) on the Web. WTLS provides security functions, decryption and authentication of WAP.


Wireless Transaction Protocol: In the WAP framework, WTP runs on top of a datagram service such as WDP to provide a simplified protocol suitable for low-bandwidth mobile applications.



XHTML is a reworking of HTML 4.0 designed to work as an application of XML. It allows anyone to create sets of markup tags for new purposes and provides a foundation for device-independent Web access.


eXtensible Markup Language is the key to WAP and is an open standard for documents containing structured information. The XML specification defines a standard way to add markup to documents. In fact, XML is really a meta-language for describing markup languages.



3G (3rd Generation) is the generic term used for the next (third) generation of mobile communications systems. 3G systems will enhance the mobile services that are predominantly available now. UMTS and W-CDMA are parts of a global family of third-generation mobile communications systems. Currently, 3rd generation technology concepts and services are developed industry-wide.


Current and future trends in telephony with respect to Japan, Europe and USA


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